Nyloxin :: Chronic Pain Relief

Scientific Research

Clinical Evidence

Nyloxin is supported by significant clinical evidence consisting of 46 human clinical studies and 20 pre-clinical studies documenting the effectiveness of cobra venom for the treatment of various types of pain, including cancer pain, chronic pain, neuralgia, and pain associated with parkinsons, arthritis, and herpes zoster.

Wei S, Qiu L; Chen ZH; Xu MC. Effect observation of Snake venom point injection in the treatment of scapulohumeral periarthritis. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2007. 14: 68,96.


Xu JM, Song ST, Feng FY, Huang FL, Yang Y, Xie GR, Xu LG, Paradiso A. Compound Keluoqu for treatment of chronic moderate to severe cancer pain: a multicenter randomized trial. ASCO Annual Meeting (2002) Abstract No. 1762


Xu JM, Song ST, Yu1 CZ, Yang Y, Cui M, Wang WU, Xiong YL, Paradiso A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Multicenter Trial of Cobrotoxin-containing Compound Analgesic in the Treatment of Postoperative Pain. Europain (2002) 2, Issue 2, Abstract


Wu YQ, Yu W. Clinical observation of capsule in the treatment of infertility group in 122 cases of the digestive system cancer. Journal of Snake, 2001. 13: 26-28.


Wei S, ZW Huang. Snake venom injection point injected in the treatment of altauna by rheumatoid arthritis in 32 cases. Journal of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2000. 24: 276-277.


Wang X, Wang F, and Hu ZD, Effect of new Cobratoxin on Postoperative analgesia, J. Snake 1999; 11 (1): 19-20


Wu MB, Wu GL. The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in 126 cases of venom compound capsule. Journal of Snake, 1999, 11: 30.


Zhu T, Liu G, Ji T, Miao Z and Chen S. The Analgesic effect of injectional cobra neurotoxin purified judged by the National Standard in Clinic. J. Snake 1999; 11 (4): 43-47


Gao ZN. Analysis on the therapeutic effect of Cobrotoxin with Chinese traditional medicine for sciatica in 182 cases. Journal of Snake, 1998. 10: 21.


Zhu CZ,Li H, Yang QP, et al. The clinical treatment of diabetic kidney capsule of Cobra venom. Medicine and Pharmacy of Yunnan, 1997. 18: 460-461


Wang SN, Wang H, Peng SF, Zhang HL. The current situation in research and clinical application of the cobra venom. Journal of Snake, 1996, 08: 23-27.


Cao YCB and Zhao GCY, KTL Clinical Anlgesic effect J. Snake 1995; 7, No. 1: 51-53


Cao YS, Cheng BQ, Zhao GH, Chen YM. Analgesic effect of Ke Ning Compound pain in clinical application. Journal of Snake, 1995, 7: 51~53.


Zhou LH, Liu MJ, Liu ZL et al. The effect on hemorheology of snake venom ingredient M. Journal of Chinese Microcirculation, 1993: 79-80.


Xiong Y, Wang W, Pu X, Song, Liu L, and Mao J, Using snake venom to substitute for addictive drugs, Toxicon 1992; 30:567-568


Li DH, Zhou YL. Clinical Observation on Treatment of the Cobrotoxin in 90 cases with heroin dependence. Medicine and Pharmacy of Yunnan. 1991, 12: 322-324.


Song YT. Clinical observation of snake venom on lung cancer. Clinical. 1991. 6: 311-312.


Wang S, He Y, Peng S. Preparation of venom and its analgesic activity. Zhongcaoyo 1986 17(1): 7-9


Pu DX. Observation on the therapeutic effect of Cobrotoxin for neurovascular headache, sciatica and trigeminal neuralgia in 96 cases. Medicine and Pharmacy of Yunnan, 1980: p. 27-31


Zeng CM. Observation on the therapeutic effect of the novel drug “Cobrotoxin” for chronicity backleg pain in 80 cases. Medicine and Pharmacy of Yunnan, 1980: p. 26-28.


Wenshan state dermatosis institute, Yunnan Province, A clinical observation report on the novel drug “Cobrotoxin” for reactivity neuralgia of leprosy. Journal of Dermatology and Venereology, 1978: 03-05.


Singh I, Srivastava MC. Anti-asthmatic effects of immunization with cobra venom. Br J Dis Chest. 1968 Apr;62(2):107-9.


Williams EY. Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with cobra venom. J Natl Med Assoc. 1960 Sep;52:327-8.


Meiselas LE, Schlecker AA. The effect of Nyloxin on the pain of arthritis. N Y State J Med. 1957 Jun 15;57(12):2067-8.


Teichman J, Cobratoxin and its use in medicine, Wien Med Wochenschr. 1956 Apr 21;106(16):364-7.


Bryson KD. The treatment of chronic arthritis with a combination of cobra venom, formic acid, and silicic acid. Am Surg. 1954 Jul;20(7):751-5.


Jackman AI. Cobra venom therapy in the neuroses; a preliminary report. Dis Nerv Syst. 1954 Apr;15(4):99-102.


Lumpkin WR, Firor WM, Evaluation of the Bryson treatment of arthritis. Am. Surgeon (1954); 20:756-759


Oaks LW, Quinn JH. Cobra venom in ocular therapy. Trans Pac Coast Otoophthalmol Soc Annu Meet. 1954 35:71-82.


Taren JA. A clinical evaluation of cobra venom extracts for control of pain. Med Bull (Ann Arbor). 1953 Aug;19(8):206-11.


Grasset E. [The cobra neurotoxin; pharmacology and clinical applications in the treatment of pain.], Med Hyg (Geneve). 1952 Feb 15;10(212):55-8.


Hills RG, Firor WM. The use of more potent cobra venom for intractable pain. Am Surg. 1952 Sep;18(9):875-9.


Seliger H. [New results with cobratoxin in cancer therapy.] Med Welt. 1951 May 12;20(19):638.


Tan MG and Ines-Tan Ar, Treatment of Herpes Zoster with cobra venom and sulfanilamide: report of 5 cases, J Philipp Med Assoc. 1947 Dec;23(12):593-9.


Black WT. Cobra venom for the relief of pain. Sout. M. J. 1940; 33: 432


Hayman M, Macht DI. Clinical and biochemical studies in cobra venom therapy. Med. Rec. 1940; 152: 67


Macht DI. New developments in pharmacology and therapeutics of cobra venom. Tr. Am. Therap. Soc. 1940; 40


Rutherford RN, The Use of Cobra Venom in the Relief of Intractable Pain, NEJM 1939: 408-413


Gayle, RF, and Williams, JN, Symptomatic treatment of Parkinsonism symptoms with cobra venom, South. M. J. 1938; 31: 188-192,


Macht DI, Therapeutic experiences with Cobra venom. Ann. Int. Med. 1938; 11: 1824•1833.


Kirchen M, Uber das Kobratoxin und seine therapeutische Verwendung, Wien. Klin. Wehnschr 1936; 49: 648-651.


Macht DI. Experimental and Clinical Study of Cobra Venom as an Analgesic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1936 Jan;22(1):61-71.


Van Esveld LW. Preparation of “Cobratoxin” for clinical purposes, especially for the treatment of cancer pains, Biochemische Zeitschrift 1936; 283: 343-57


Laignel-Lavastine, Korossios NT, Cobra Venom Therapy. J. Med. Paris, 1933; Vol. LIII: 652.


Taguet C, La cure des algies et des tumeurs malignes. Bull. et mem Soc. de Med. de Paris 1933; 131: 310.


Monaelesser A, and Taguet C, Traitment des algies et des tumeurs par le “Venin du Cobra” Bull. Act. De Med Paris 1933; 109: 371-377

Catassi A, Paleari L, Servent D, Sessa F, Dominioni L, Ognio E, Cilli M, Vacca P, Mingari M, Gaudino G, Bertino P, Paolucci M, Calcaterra A, Cesario A, Granone P, Costa R, Ciarlo M, Alama A, Russo P. Targeting alpha7-nicotinic receptor for the treatment of pleural mesothelioma. Eur J Cancer. 2008 Oct;44(15):2296-311.


Grozio A, Paleari L, Catassi A, Servent D, Cilli M, Piccardi F, Paganuzzi M, Cesario A, Granone P, Mourier G, Russo P. Natural agents targeting the alpha7-nicotinic-receptor in NSCLC: a promising prospective in anti-cancer drug development. Int J Cancer. 2008 Apr 15;122(8):1911-5.
Chen R, Robinson SE. Effect of cholinergic manipulations on the analgesic response to cobrotoxin in mice. Life Sci 1990; 47: 1949-1954.


Chen ZX, Zhang HL, Gu ZL, Chen BW, Han R, Reid PF, Raymond LN, and Qin ZH. A long-form α-neurotoxin from cobra venom produces potent opioid independent analgesia. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 2006; 27: 402-8.


Cheng BC, Zhou XP, Zhu Q, Gong S, Qin ZH, Reid PF, Raymond LN, Yin QZ, Jiang XH. Cobratoxin inhibits pain-evoked discharge of neurons in thalamic parafascicular nucleus in rats: Involvement of cholinergic and serotonergic systems. Toxicon. 2009 Apr 16.


Chopra RN, Chowhan JS, Snake venoms in Pharmacology and Therapeutics Ind. Med. Gaz. 1935; 445-453


Lamb G, Hunter W. On the action of venoms of different species of poisonous snakes on the nervous system. Lancet 1904 Jan 2; 1: 20


Liu YL, Lin HM, Zou R, Wu JC, Han R, Raymond LN, Reid PF, Qin ZH. Suppression of complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced adjuvant arthritis by Cobratoxin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009


Macht DI. Comparison of cobra venom and morphine as analgesics. Proceeding 1936; 101


Macht DI, Effects of repeated injections of cobra venom on blood chemistry and morphology, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol Med. 43; 450 (1940)


Pu XC, Wong PT, Gopalakrishnakone P. A novel analgesic toxin (hannalgesin) from the venom of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah). Toxicon 1995; 33: 1425-1431.


Zhang, HL, Han R, Gu ZL, Chen ZX, Chen BW, Reid PF, Raymond LN, Qin ZH, A short-chain a-neurotoxin from Naja naja atra produces potent cholinergic-dependent analgesia. Neuroscience Bulletin March 2006; 22(2): 103-110


Davenport HW. Prevention and suppression by azathioprine of venom-induced protein-losing gastropathy in dogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Mar;73(3):968-70.


Ismail M, Aly MH, Abd-Elsalam MA, Morad AM. A three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model can explain variable toxicities of cobra venoms and their alpha toxins. Toxicon. 1996 Sep;34(9):1011-26.


Lee CY, Tseng LF. Distribution of Bungarus Multicinctus Venom Following Envenomation. Toxicon, 1966; 3: 281-290


Tseng LF, Chiu TH, Lee CY. Absorption and Distribution of I-Labeled Cobra Venom and Its Purified Toxins. Tox. And Applied Pharmac., 1968; 12: 526-535


Pittman R., Oppenheim R.,W: “Cell death of motoneurons in the chick embryo spinal cord. IV. Evidence that a functional neuromuscular interaction is involved in the regulation of naturally occurring cell death and the stabilization of synapses.” J Comp Neurol. 1979 Sep 15;187(2):425-46


Levin ME, Jin JG, Ji RR, Tong J, Pomonis JD, Lavery DJ, Miller SW, Chiang LW. Complement activation in the peripheral nervous system following the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2008 Jul;137(1):182-201.


Jiang WJ, Liang YX, Han LP, Qiu PX, Yuan J, Zhao SJ. Purification and characterization of a novel antinociceptive toxin from Cobra venom (Naja naja atra). Toxicon. 2008 Oct;52(5):638-46


Xiong Y, Wang W, Pu X, Song, Liu L, and Mao J, Using snake venom to substitute for addictive drugs, Toxicon 1992; 30:567-568

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